1 29 –

1 29 –

Please see attached for instruction.

All you’ll be working on is the Introduction, including the research problem.

Research Question

Is there an inverse association between schooling and years of smoking ?

 Null hypothesis : There is no statistically significant relationship between education level and smoking duration.

Alternative hypothesis: Individuals with higher education levels are more likely with shorter duration of smoking.

These are the sources that will be used. 

Assari, S., & Mistry, R. (2018). Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(4), 763. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040763

Fernández, E., Schiaffino, A., Borrell, C., Benach, J., Ariza, C., Ramon, J. M., Twose, J., Nebot, M., & Kunst, A. (2006). Social class, education, and smoking cessation: Long-term follow-up of patients treated at a smoking cessation unit. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 8(1), 29–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200500264432

Koning, P., Webbink, D., Martin, N.G. (2010, March). The Effect of Education on Smoking Behavior: New Evidence from Smoking Durations of a Sample of Twins. DOI:10.1007/s00181-014-0842-6 https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/4796/the-effect-of-education-on-smoking-behavior-new-evidence-from-smoking-durations-of-a-sample-of-twins

Gilman, S.E., Martin, L.T.,  Abrams, D.B.,  Kawachi, I., Kubzansky, L., Loucks, E.B., Rende, R., Rudd, R., Stephen L Buka, S.L. (2008, June). Educational attainment and cigarette smoking: a causal association? International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 37, Issue 3,  Pages 615–624, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dym250

Choi, W. Y., Kim, C. H., & Lee, O. G. (2013). Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking. Korean journal of family medicine, 34(3), 190–198. https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2013.34.3.190

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