Social Contact Theorist Option

Social Contact Theorist Option

Post Instructions

The principle of utility involves maximizing happiness as a desirable outcome of decisions. Although it does not get directly said, there is an inverse intention to minimize the undesirable outcome of disaster. Utilitarian decisions are directed toward outcomes—that is, the consequences of decisions.

We need to look at results. We first look at the actual results of an action. We judge if it was the best possible result. We can judge the actual results in comparison to other results that reasonably could be said to have been possible.

If we do not yet have the actual results of an action, we do not know if it is moral or not. We can talk hypothetically about what might happen, and then what that would show about the morality of an action. However, if we do not know what the action had as its consequences, we cannot yet say if it is moral or not.

For the initial post of this week’s discussion respond to one of the following options, and label the beginning of your post indicating either Option 1, Option 2, or Option 3:

Option 1: You are a nurse on a floor with only elderly patients. Every day, each patient tells you about how much pain they are in and asks you to help them. They want you to inject them with something to end their lives. If the patients die, the beds on that floor would be freed up for other patients. The hospital is at 100 percent capacity. There is no other hospital for 30 miles. Other patients may be not receiving care due to a lack of free beds. What is the moral thing to do here? Why is that the moral thing to do? What would an utilitarian say is the moral thing to do? Why would they say that? Compare and contrast the utilitarian approach with that of an ethical egoist or social contact theorist

Option 2: A new social media app is offering itself to you for free. If you upload a picture to it, the app will show how you will look at 10 years. John Doe, a friend of yours, says not to use the app as it will then possess your biometric facial data. Jane Doe, another friend of yours, says that she heard the app shares the facial data with a security firm that helps the government detect terrorists at airports. Should you use this app? Why or why not? If John Doe is right, would an utilitarian say it is right to use the app? Why or why not?  If Jane Doe is right, would a social contract theorists say it is right to use the app? Consider the role the Fourth Amendment at play here.

Option 3: You are a nursing student at the XYZ College. It has a 50 percent acceptance rate (half the applicants do not get in). XYZ is a public college. XYZ has decided to implement an affirmative action policy. The college has few students over the age of 50. To encourage more students of that age, every student 50 or older will receive a bonus point. A student’s admission is dependent on having 11 points. One earns points for a GPA above a certain score, ACT/SAT score above a certain number, having a letter of recommendation, etc. XYZ also lacks LGBT students, Muslim, and African-American students and is considering offering a bonus point for any student fitting those categories. What is the key moral conflict for XYZ? What social values should XYZ promote here? What diverse populations are involved here, and what are their interests? Do you think XYZ’s social action is the correct solution to lack of diversity? Why or why not? Factor the ethics of egoism and utilitarianism into your answer.

Recent Medical Error

Recent Medical Error

Research online and find a recent medical error that made the news. Answer the following questions.

  1. What happened in the incident?
  2. Who was involved?
  3. What were the ramifications for the patient and/or staff?
  4. Reflect on the incident and think about some causes and possible interventions that could have prevented the error.

Treat Health Conditions

Treat Health Conditions

 

Nurses play an important role in providing care for patients to help manage their physical needs, treat health conditions and prevent illnesses. As highly trained members of the medical team, most nurses have a broad skill set and a wide range of responsibilities that can vary from one patient to the next. If you are starting your career as a nurse or looking to become one, understanding what nurses are responsible for may benefit you.

Apa Style Format Using

Apa Style Format Using

written in APA style format using at least 150-200 words per journal.   

Lifelong Learning and Professional Employment 

  • What is your plan for lifelong learning?
  • Do you have any interests in pursuing an advanced degree, certification in a specialty, or leadership role? How and where do you get them? 
  • What stands out to you about the position you are interested in? Why does it interest you?

Providing Quality Nursing Care

Providing Quality Nursing Care

 

Providing quality nursing care is supported by the use of evidence-based practice (EBP); however, how does a nurse know what the best evidence is? In particular, how can nurses in advanced nursing roles lead by using EBP in their work? Several models have been developed to assist nurses in determining what the best evidence is to guide their practice.

Select one of the theoretical models used to evaluate the evidence for EBP that will fit into your future advanced nursing role. Briefly explain the model, provide rationale for selection of the model, and provide an example of how the model has been used in advanced nursing practice.

(use 3 references from the year 2015 and above, use APA style 

Use Apa Style 7

Use Apa Style 7

 

In Units 3 and 4, you examined theories from other disciplines that are used in nursing. Some of these theories are used without modification in nursing such as Lewin’s Change Theory to support practice changes. Other theories are used as a foundation for development of nursing theories such as Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations founded on the work of Harry Stack Sullivan. Clearly, many non-nursing theories are used in the development of middle range theories in nursing.

Identify a middle range theory in nursing that has links to a non-nursing theory. Describe the theory and explain the relationship to the related non-nursing theory. Connect the selected middle range theory to nursing research or advanced nursing practice.

(Use at least 3 references from the year 2015 and above) (use apa style 7)

Answers Within 5 Years

Answers Within 5 Years

Read the following case study and answer the reflective questions with at least 500 words. Please provide rationales for your answers. Make sure to provide at least 2 citations for your answers within 5 years published. Must follow APA, 7th ed. format. No plagiarism, please.

Mark and Jacqueline have been married for 30 years. They have grown children who live in another state. Jacqueline’s mother has moved in with the couple because she has Alzheimer’s disease. Jacqueline is an only child and always promised her mother that she would care for her in her old age. Her mother is unaware of her surroundings and often calls out for her daughter Jackie when Jacqueline is in the room. Jacqueline reassures her mother that she is there to help but to no avail. Jacqueline is unable to visit her children on holidays because she must attend to her mother’s daily needs. She is reluctant to visit friends or even go out to a movie because of her mother’s care needs or because she is too tired. Even though she has eliminated most leisure activities with Mark, Jacqueline goes to bed at night with many of her caregiving tasks unfinished. She tries to visit with her mother during the day, but her mother rejects any contact with her daughter. Planning for the upcoming holidays seems impossible to Mark, because of his wife’s inability to focus on anything except her mother’s care. Jacqueline has difficulty sleeping at night and is unable to discuss plans even a few days in advance. She is unable to visit friends and is reluctant to have friends visit because of the unpredictable behavior of her mother and her need to attend to the daily care. 

Reflective Questions 

1. How do you think this situation reflects Jacqueline’s sense of role performance? 

2. How do you think that Jacqueline may be contributing to her own health? 

Synthesize Knowledge Gained Throughout

Synthesize Knowledge Gained Throughout

 The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) has determined nine broad areas of core competence that apply to all nurse practitioners, regardless of specialty or patient population focus. NONPF created the first set of Nurse Practitioner Competencies in 1990; the most recent updates were incorporated in 2017. This course was designed to prepare you to synthesize knowledge gained throughout the program and to apply each of the nine core competencies within your selected areas of practice and your representative communities. 

Assessment Tool Would Help

Assessment Tool Would Help

 

Physicians have applied multiple theories in treatment processes to improve the well-being of the community. Researchers have also devised multiple health frameworks influencing the diagnosis of symptoms and the employment of specific assessment tools to solve health issues among different populations. Applying such theories promotes positive health results, and researchers publish evidence to guide future practitioners about holistic therapeutic interventions. Using the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms (TOUS) as a guide while selecting an assessment tool would help highlight many vital clinical signs, categorize various situational, psychological, and physiological factors, and examine the social, physical, and cognitive performance of symptoms among patients.

Physicians measure vital symptoms and signs among living organisms to establish the state of their essential physiological functions. The process is also the first critical step of clinical evaluation as it helps clinicians identify the degree of health imbalance among patients. Typical signs include respiratory and pulse rates, temperature, and blood pressure (Sapra et al., 2021). The assessment outcomes of such symptoms enhance the realization and interpretation of pathological and physiologic processes. In addition, evaluating vital signs assist physicians in determining the urgency of presentations among patients. The degree of critical symptoms increases the ability of clinicians to predict and assess readmission frequencies, department visits, emergency returns, and patients’ use of resources in healthcare settings (Sapra et al., 2021). Hence, the assessment outcomes of patient symptoms heighten the accuracy of prescriptions in treatment procedures.

The effective evaluation of patient symptoms enhances disease management and the provision of high-quality services. Such objectives trigger the need for integrating various assessment tools to increase the accuracy of diagnosis among patients. For example, health professionals have adopted the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) to examine and manage symptoms in palliative care (Brooks et al., 2020). The tool helps cancer patients self-report the burden and intensity of their clinical symptoms and signs. Health experts have devised different versions of ESAS, assessing 11, 10, and 9 symptoms within 24 hours (Brooks et al., 2020). However, the tools evaluate common signs, including depression, overall well-being, pain, anxiety, appetite, tiredness, drowsiness, and nausea. ESAS also highlights essential clinical information, such as unmet patient needs and symptom-based severity (Hui & Bruera, 2017). The consistent application of the tool in palliative care has improved the effectiveness of treatment procedures and patient survival. Eventually, assessment tools promote the measurement of vital symptoms, increasing clinicians’ capacity to manage diseases.

Measuring common symptoms assist physicians in interpreting the changes in pathological and physiologic processes among patients. Deploying assessment tools in the evaluation processes fosters disease management and the establishment of symptom severity in the treatment process. Nonetheless, clinicians can utilize TOUS to guide studies concerning heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, chronic pulmonary infections, and cancer (Silva-Rodrigues et al., 2019). The theory also provides a comprehensive and structured way of interpreting symptoms (Blakeman, 2019). In addition, the framework establishes the most significant symptom experiences and aspects guiding nursing practice and research (Lenz, 2018). TOUS relates significantly to three primary parts, including performance outcomes, symptoms, and influencing factors. Hence, I would select an assessment tool integrating the three components to intensify the evaluation of symptoms among individuals. For instance, I would adopt a tool highlighting many vital signs compared to others showcasing one or two symptoms. In addition, I would deploy an assessment tool categorizing various situational, psychological, and physiological factors to promote disease management. Finally, I would employ a tool examining the social, physical, and cognitive performance of symptoms among patients. Although TOUS hardly includes explicit interventions, its guidelines would elevate my ability to interpret relationships between multiple symptoms and signs.

TOUS guidelines assist physicians in identifying the most practical assessment tools for diagnosing symptoms among patients. Individuals may showcase many clinical signs based on the nature and type of infections. Hence, health professionals deploy assessment tools, such as ESAS, to enhance their disease management abilities and improve the well-being of patients. The complex nature of symptoms and infections may adversely impact the selection of the most appropriate tools. However, performance outcomes, symptoms, and influencing factors of TOUS extend to the capacity of health professionals to manage diseases.

  

200 words and one scholarly reference  

Theory Contains Relatively Specific

Theory Contains Relatively Specific

 

Elizabeth R. Lenz created the theory of unpleasant symptoms to identify the relationship between symptoms and diseases. The theory is based on the fact that symptoms are always in clusters. The theory is considered a middle-range theory and aims to give nurses a better understanding of symptoms so they can have more appropriate and timely interventions for diseases (Silva-Rodrigues & Nascimento, 2019). This theory contains relatively specific nursing research documentation and practices. Furthermore, the theory is also predictive, as it is used to determine the future outcome of patient cases and the best ways to cure the infection or the condition.

The theory originates from the fact that patients usually come with symptoms to seek medical help. Symptoms are the first signs of an ailing body, and these are simple to spot and give a definitive direction toward the cause of the ailment and the cure. Elizabeth Lenz theorized that the cluster of symptoms could lead to more than one negative effect. In 1995, Lenz and colleagues focused on individual symptoms (Vargo, 2020). In 1997, the theory was revised to focus on a cluster of concurrent symptoms. According to the National Institute of Nursing Research, the theory through the clustering method can help improve disease management.

The theory is a guideline on how nurses can apply the knowledge gained in studying the clustered symptoms to predict the outcome and the treatment of the diseases. The theory has three main components that make it applicable and enable it to analyze patient cases (Gomes et al., 2019). The elements are as follows:  the symptoms the individual is experiencing, the second are influencing factors that give rise to or affect the nature of the symptoms, and lastly, the symptoms experienced have consequences. Firstly, the symptoms are perceived as the changes in the body functions experienced by the patient. Symptoms are multidimensional, which means that they are affected by several factors, such as the intensity of the symptoms at a given, the distress given by the patient, the timing of the symptoms at different times or in different environments, and the quality of the symptoms. Many symptoms can coincide, making them multidimensional based on the mentioned factors (Gomes et al., 2019). The influencing factors are also categorized into three main dimensions: psychological, physiological, and situational. Lastly, the performance of the symptoms is related to the consequences of the symptoms, affecting the quality of life lived those individual lives and their daily activities (Blakeman, 2019).

The theory applies to many cases and is not closed to one section alone. This theory allows nurses to recognize some symptoms’ patterns and pinpoint them to a given disease cause. This theory applies in many patient interactions because nurses look for symptoms and pinpoint certain disease patterns (Vargo, 2020). This theory is used to identify the symptom scales of diseases such as heart failure among members of a state and a country at large. The nurses search for factors, and if they can pick up a cluster of symptoms that have been studied before, they can prevent diseases and save lives (Vargo, 2020). The nurse is tasked with direct patient care, and therefore they can pick up symptoms, they pick up symptoms before they appear. This increases the efficacy of patient preventive care models that can help solve the problem of diseases such as heart failure and diabetes. Nurses are now able to apply symptom management procedures to conditions that are in practice. The theory is a guidance mechanism nurses use to manage how the patient’s symptoms are handled. This framework is resourceful in tracking the symptom scales for pandemics. This theory can help improve patient outcomes in many fields of medicine and nursing.

In conclusion, nurses should rely on symptom management systems with predictive features for future improvement. The symptom management symptoms are made based on the elements of the unpleasant symptom theory. Furthermore, utilizing the scale symptom management systems will help give good patient outcomes. The examination of limits and the simplicity of the theory in different cases should be examined before implementation. Despite the theory being applicable in many situations, the nurses need to know that the theory has limitations and should be tested before application in some of the situations.

  

200 words and one scholarly reference